Citation requirements are continually evolving. In particular cases, there may be stylistic problems that are not addressed in the APA Style Manual. These instances may rely on personal judgment for a solution. It is important to clarify citation formats and style requirements with your instructor.


Book with one author

Segal, N. L. (1999). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Dutton.

Book with two authors

Cohen, C., & Regan, T. (2001). The animal rights debate. Lanham, MD: Rowman.

Book with an editor and a later edition

Baird, R. (Ed.). (2001). The ethics of abortion: Pro-life vs. pro-choice (3rd ed.). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Electronic books or e-books:

Book with three to six authors

Hendriks, J. H., Kaplan, T., & Black, D. (2000). When father kills mother: Guiding children through trauma and grief. London: Routledge. Retrieved April 23, 2004, from NetLibrary database.

Encyclopedia articles:

Article in a well-known general encyclopedia

Hall, C. S. (1999). Dreams. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 9, pp. 370-372). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

Article in a specialized encyclopedia

Brasington, C. R. (2001). Birth order. In W. E. Craighead & C. B. Nemeroff (Eds.), The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science (Vol. 1, pp. 215-219). New York: Wiley.

Articles from popular series: Opposing Viewpoints or Taking Sides Books:

Valenti, J. (2001). Violence in the media should not be blamed for youth violence. In L. Egendorf (Ed.), Violence: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 114-118). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.

Magazine, journal, and newspaper articles:

Magazine article

Cowley, G. (2003, September 8). Girls, boys and autism. Newsweek, 142, 42-46.

Journal article

Boeckmann, R. J., & Turpin-Petrosino, C. (2002). Understanding the harm of hate crime. The Journal of Social Issues, 58, 207-225.

Newspaper article

Miller, M. (2004, January 19). Help for hotheads. Los Angeles Times, pp. F1, F8.

Reports from CQ Researcher:

Glazer, S. (2002, February 8). Treating anxiety. The CQ Researcher, 12, 97-120.


Motion picture

Jackson, M. (Director). (1999). Tuesdays with Morrie. [Motion picture]. Burbank, CA: Touchstone Home Video.

Articles from online databases:

Magazine article from ProQuest

Wallis, C. (2004, May 10). What makes teens tick. Time, 163, 56-62, 65. Retrieved May 13, 2004, from the ProQuest Multiple databases.

Scholarly journal article from ProQuest

Anderson, K. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 851-863. Retrieved October 8, 2004, from the ProQuest Multiple databases.

Scholarly journal article from Gale Health Reference Center-Academic

Terry, W. S., & Burns, J. S. (2001). Anxiety and repression in attention and retention. The Journal of General Psychology, 128, 422-432. Retrieved April 2, 2004, from the Gale Health Reference Center-Academic database.

Newspaper article from ProQuest

Lindsley, C. (2001, January 26). Putting your head in the game. The Washington Post (Final ed.), p. T60. Retrieved March 19, 2004, from the ProQuest Newspapers database.

Article from Gale Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center

Cisneros, H. (2002). Mental illness contributes to homelessness. In J. A. Hurley (Ed.), The Homeless. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 19, 2004, from the Gale Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.

Article from CQ Researcher

Hosansky, D. (2004, February 13). Youth suicide. The CQ Researcher Online, 14, 125-148. Retrieved May 13, 2004, from the CQ Researcher database.

Resources from government, private, or organizaion websites:

Publication from government website

National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Depression. (NIH Publication No. 02-3561). Retrieved March 19, 2004, from the NIMH Web site:

Resource from PBS

Smith, M. (Writer), & Gaviria, M. & Smith, M. (Producers). (2001, April 10). Medicating kids Television series episode]. In D. Fanning (Executive Producer), Frontline. Boston: Public Broadcasting Service WGBH. Retrieved May 14, 2004, from the PBS Web site:

For additional examples and guidelines, please consult the following:

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